NEW ParaFishControl article "Acquired protective immune response in a fish-myxozoan model encompasses specific antibodies and inflammation resolution"

Acquired protective immune response in a fish-myxozoan model encompasses specific antibodies and inflammation resolution. Fish & Shellfish Immunology. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2019.04.300

The myxozoan parasite Enteromyxum leei causes chronic enteritis in gilthead sea bream (GSB, Sparus aurata) leading to intestinal dysfunction. Two trials were performed in which GSB that had survived a previous infection with E. leei (SUR), and naïve GSB (NAI), were exposed to water effluent containing parasite stages. Humoral factors (total IgM and IgT, specific anti-E. leei IgM, total serum peroxidases), histopathology and gene expression were analysed. Results showed that SUR maintained high levels of specific anti-E. leei IgM (up to 16 months), expressed high levels of immunoglobulins at the intestinal mucosa, particularly the soluble forms, and were resistant to re-infection. Their acquired-type response was complemented by other immune effectors locally and systemically, like cell cytotoxicity (high granzyme A expression), complement activity (high c3 and fucolectin expression), and serum peroxidases. In contrast to NAI, SUR displayed a post-inflammatory phenotype in the intestine and head kidney, characteristic of inflammation resolution (low il1β, high il10 and low hsp90α expression).

 

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NEW ParaFishControl article "Methacarn preserves mucus integrity and improves visualization of amoebae in gills of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)"

Methacarn preserves mucus integrity and improves visualization of amoebae in gills of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Journal of Fish Diseases. doi: 10.1111/jfd.12988

Two aqueous fixation methods (modified Davidson's solution and modified Davidson's solution with 2% (w/v) Alcian blue) were compared against two non‐aqueous fixation methods (methacarn solution and methacarn solution with 2% (w/v) Alcian blue) along with the standard buffered formalin fixation method to (a) improve preservation of the mucous coat on Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., gills and (b) to examine the interaction between the amoebae and mucus on the gill during an infection with amoebic gill disease. Aqueous fixatives demonstrated excellent cytological preservation but failed to deliver the preservation of the mucus when compared to the non‐aqueous‐based fixatives; qualitative and semi‐quantitative analysis revealed a greater preservation of the gill mucus using the non‐aqueous methacarn solution. A combination of this fixation method and an Alcian blue/Periodic acid–Schiff staining was tested in gills of Atlantic salmon infected with amoebic gill disease; lectin labelling was also used to confirm the mucus preservation in the methacarn‐fixed tissue. Amoebae were observed closely associated with the mucus demonstrating that the techniques employed for preservation of the mucous coat can indeed avoid the loss of potential mucus‐embedded parasites, thus providing a better understanding of the relationship between the mucus and parasite.

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NEW ParaFishControl article "Salmon louse rhabdoviruses: Impact on louse development and transcription of selected Atlantic salmon immune genes"

Salmon louse rhabdoviruses: Impact on louse development and transcription of selected Atlantic salmon immune genes. Developmental & comparative immunology. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2018.04.023

Recently, it has been shown that the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is commonly infected by one or two vertically transmitted Lepeophtheirus salmonis rhabdoviruses (LsRVs). As shown in the present study, the viruses have limited effect on louse survival, developmental rate and fecundity. Since the LsRVs were confirmed to be present in the louse salivary glands, the salmon cutaneous immune response towards LsRV positive and negative lice was analyzed. In general, L. salmonis increased the expression of IL1β, IL8 and IL4/13A at the attachment site, in addition to the non-specific cytotoxic cell receptor protein 1 (NCCRP-1). Interestingly, LsRV free lice induced a higher skin expression of IL1β, IL8, and NCCRP-1 than the LsRV infected lice. The inflammatory response is important for louse clearance, and the present results suggest that the LsRVs can be beneficial for the louse by dampening inflammation. Further research is, however; needed to ascertain whether this is a direct modulatory effect of secreted virions, or if virus replication is altering the level of louse salivary gland proteins.

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NEW ParaFishControl article "Detection of the intranuclear microsporidian Enterospora nucleophila in gilthead sea bream by in situ hybridization"

Detection of the intranuclear microsporidian Enterospora nucleophila in gilthead sea bream by in situ hybridization. Journal of Fish Diseases. doi: 10.1111/jfd.12993

Enterospora nucleophila is an intranuclear microsporidian responsible for emaciative microsporidiosis of gilthead sea bream (GSB). Its minute size and cryptic nature make it easily misdiagnosed. An in situ hybridization (ISH) technique based on antisense oligonucleotide probes specific for the parasite was developed and used in clinically infected GSB in combination with calcofluor white stain (CW) and other histopathological techniques. The ISH method was found to label very conspicuously the cells containing parasite stages, with the signal concentrating in merogonial and sporogonial plasmodia within the infected cell nuclei. Comparison with CW demonstrated limited ISH signal in cells containing mature spores, which was attributed mostly to the scarcity of probe targets present in these stages. Although spores were detected in other organs of the digestive system as well as in the peripheral blood, proliferative stages or parasite reservoirs were not found in this work outside the intestines. The study demonstrated a frequent disassociation between the presence of abundant spores and the intensity of the infections as determined by the parasite activity. The ISH allows confirmatory diagnosis of GSB microsporidiosis and estimation of infection intensity and will be a valuable tool for a more precise determination of parasite dissemination pathways and pathogeny mechanisms.

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NEW ParaFishControl article "The coagulation system helps control infection caused by the ciliate parasite Philasterides dicentrarchi in the turbot Scophthalmus maximus (L.)"

The coagulation system helps control infection caused by the ciliate parasite Philasterides dicentrarchi in the turbot Scophthalmus maximus (L.). Developmental and Comparative Immunology. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2018.06.001.

Many studies have shown that coagulation systems play an important role in the defence against pathogens in invertebrates and vertebrates. In vertebrates, particularly in mammals, it has been established that the coagulation system participates in the entrapment of pathogens and activation of the early immune response. However, functional studies investigating the importance of the fish coagulation system in host defence against pathogens are scarce. In the present study, injection of turbot (Scopthalamus maximus) with the pathogenic ciliate Philasterides dicentrarchi led to the formation of macroscopic intraperitoneal clots in the fish. The clots contained abundant, immobilized ciliates, many of which were lysed. We demonstrated that the plasma clots immobilize and kill the ciliates in vitro. To test the importance of plasma clotting in ciliate killing, we inhibited the process by adding a tetrapeptide known to inhibit fibrinogen/thrombin clotting in mammals. Plasma tended to kill P. dicentrarchi slightly faster when clotting was inhibited by the tetrapeptide, although the total mortality of ciliates was similar. We also found that kaolin, a particulate activator of the intrinsic pathway in mammals, accelerates plasma clotting in turbot. In addition, PMA-stimulated neutrophils, living ciliates and several ciliate components such as cilia, proteases and DNA also displayed procoagulant activity in vitro. Injection of fish with the ciliates generated the massive release of neutrophils to the peritoneal cavity, with formation of large aggregates in those fish with live ciliates in the peritoneum. We observed, by SEM, numerous fibrin-like fibres in the peritoneal exudate, many of which were associated with peritoneal leukocytes and ciliates. Expression of the CD18/CD11b gene, an integrin associated with cell adhesion and the induction of fibrin formation, was upregulated in the peritoneal leukocytes. In conclusion, the findings of the present study show that P. dicentrarchi induces the formation of plasma clots and that the fish coagulation system may play an important role in immobilizing and killing this parasite.

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